Terms used in shipping such as International Atomic Energy Agency,International Atomic Energy List ,International Banking Act


Terms used in shipping such as International Atomic Energy Agency,International Atomic Energy List ,International Banking Act etc.



This post explains about terms used in shipping such as International Agricultural Research Centers,International Atomic Energy Agency,International Atomic Energy List ,International Banking Act,International Banking Facility ,International Coffee Agreement,International Competitive Bidding etc. These terms used in international business are arranged in alphabetical order and you may add more information about terms used in export business at the end of this article, if you wish.


Terms used in shipping


International Agricultural Research Centers - See: Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research.


International Air Transport Association - IATA, established in 1945, is a trade association serving airlines, passengers, shippers, travel agents, and governments. The association promotes safety, standardization in forms (baggage checks, tickets, weigh bills), and aids in establishing international airfares. IATA headquarters are in Geneva, Switzerland.


International And Territorial Operations - In general, operations outside the territory of the United States, including operations between U.S. points separated by foreign territory or major expanses of international waters.


International Anticounterfeiting Coalition - The IACC, founded in 1978, is a non-profit organization located in Washington, D.C. The IACC seeks to advance intellectual property rights (IPR) protection on a worldwide basis by promoting laws, regulations, and directives designed to render theft of IPR unattractive and unprofitable.


Terms used in shipping such as International Atomic Energy Agency,International Atomic Energy List ,International Banking Act etcInternational Atomic Energy Agency - The IAEA, a specialized agency of the UN, is the primary international organization that enforces a system of safeguards to ensure that non-nuclear weapons states do not divert shipments of sensitive nuclear-related equipment from peaceful applications to the production of nuclear weapons. Before a supplier state of nuclear materials or equipment may approve an export to a non-nuclear weapons NPT (Nuclear non-Proliferation Treaty) signatory state, it must receive assurances that the recipient will place the material under IAEA safeguards. Subsequent to shipment, the recipient state must allow IAEA officials to verify the legitimate end use of the exported materials or equipment. IAEA, established in July 1957, gives advice and technical assistance to developing countries on nuclear power development, nuclear safety, radioactive waste management, and related efforts. Safeguards are the technical means applied by the IAEA to verify that nuclear equipment or materials are used exclusively for peaceful purposes. IAEA headquarters are in Vienna, Austria.


International Atomic Energy List - The International Atomic Energy List is one of three lists maintained by CoCom. The AEL, comprising strictly nuclear-related items that are also of commercial value, consists of: materials, facilities, nuclear-related equipment, and software. State, which has the lead in U.S. negotiations concerning the AEL, relies on DOE experts.


International Bank for Reconstruction and Development - The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, a part of the World Bank, was established in December 1945 to help countries reconstruct their economies after World War II. IBRD assists developing member countries by lending to government agencies and by guaranteeing private loans for such projects as agricultural modernization or infrastructural development. Bank headquarters are in Washington, D.C. See: World Bank.


International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) - Commonly referred to as the World Bank, the IBRD is an intergovernmental financial institution with the objective of raising world living standards and reducing poverty in developing countries.


International Banking Act - The IBA, passed in 1978, established a federal legislative framework for governing the activities of foreign banks, which previously had been governed only by state laws. The IBA established a policy of national treatment for U.S. offices of foreign banks by: (a) limiting any new multistate branching activities to activities more comparable to those of U.S. banks; (b) placing the foreign bank offices under the same reserve requirements that apply to U.S. banks; (c) limiting foreign bank involvement in U.S. securities; and (d) making federal deposit insurance available to U.S. offices of foreign banks if they chose to engage in retail banking. See: Foreign Bank Supervision Enhancement Act.


International Banking Facility - An IBF is one of four categories of foreign banking in the United States. An IBF may be a domestic bank or an office of a foreign bank. In either circumstance, the IBF maintains asset and liability ational Summary (MOS) listing all projects in the pipeline; (b) Technical Data Sheets (TDS), published for each approved loan, listing identifying information, procurement methods, cofinancing and similar data; (c) general procurement notices, issued for projects involving international competitive bidding; (d) specific procurement notices describing specific items to be procured and bidding requirements; and (e) major contract award notices identifying successful bidders for contracts which were recently awarded. See: International Competitive Bidding Limited International Bidding Local Competitive Bidding


International Cargo Handling Coordination Association - The ICHCA: (a) collects, edits, and disseminates technical information relating to cargo handling by all modes of transport; (b) maintains consultative status with the International Standards Organization for the development of standards relating to cargo handling equipment (such as hooks, containers, wire slings, spreaders, and pallets); (c) maintains a library for members' use; and (d) represents members' interests on an international basis. There is an ICHSA U.S. National Section. The ICHCA Secretariat General is in London, England.


International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes - ICSID, an affiliate of the World Bank, is a public international organization which provides facilities for the conciliation and arbitration of investment disputes between Contracting States and nationals of other Contracting States. The Centre's objective is to promote an atmosphere of mutual confidence between States and foreign investors conducive to increasing the flow of private international investment. The Centre does not itself engage in conciliation or arbitration but assists in the initiation and conduct of conciliation and arbitration proceedings. Recourse to conciliation and arbitration under the ICSID Convention is entirely voluntary. However, once the parties have consented, they are bound to carry out their undertakings and, the case of arbitration, to abide by the award. All Contracting States, whether or not parties to the dispute, are required to recognize awards rendered pursuant to the Convention as binding and to enforce the pecuniary obligations imposed thereby. The Centre also conducts and publishes research in foreign investment law. ICSID was created under a treaty, the Convenion on the Settlement of Investment Disputes Between States and Nationals of Other States (the ICSID Convention) which entered into force in October 1966. The Centre's headquarters are in Washington, D.C. See: World Bank.


International Chamber of Commerce - ICC was created in 1919 to promote free trade, private enterprise, and represent business interests at national and international levels. Members include national councils from sixty countries. ICC headquarters are in Paris, France.


International Civil Aviation Organization - The ICAO is an United Nations specialized agency which promotes international cooperation in civil aviation. The ICAO Council adopts standards and recommended practices concerning air nagivation, prevention of unlawful interference, and facilitation of border-crossing procedures for international civil aviation. Operating since 1947, ICAO includes almost all U.N. members. Headquarters are in Montreal, Canada.


International Coffee Agreement - An agreement signed by 67 countries, representing all of the world's major exporters and importers of coffee. The International Coffee Organization, ICO, acted as a forum for market participants since the early 1960s, but has not regulated markets since July 1989, when consuming and exporting country members were unable to agree on export quotas. Since suspending export quotas, the ICO has been acting mainly as a center for meetings and as a collector of statistics on the coffee market. The forum scheduled a September 1994 decision on future directions for the ICO. The Association of Coffee Producing Countries, a new pact comprising 28 members which account for 85 percent of world coffee exports, has been seeking to strengthen world prices through an export-retention plan.


International Coffee Organization - See: International Coffee Agreement.


International Commodity Agreement - An ICA is an international understanding, usually reflected in a legal instrument, relating to trade in a particular basic commodity, and based on terms negotiated and accepted by most of the countries that export and import commercially significant quantities of the commodity. Some commodity agreements (such as exists for coffee, cocoa, natural rubber, sugar, and tin) center on economic provisions intended to defend a price range for the commodity through the use of buffer stocks or export quotas or both. Other commodity agreements (such as existing agreements for jute and jute products, olive oil, and wheat) promote cooperation among producers and consumers through improved consultation, exchange of information, research and development, and export promotion.


International Competitive Bidding - ICB is one of several forms of procurement made with World Bank financing. While the World Bank provides financing from its loans for the contracts and ensures that agreed procurement procedures are observed, the borrower, not the World Bank, is always responsible for procurement. ICB requires that: (a) all goods or works to be procured through ICB be internationally advertised through the United Nations (in the publication: Development Business) and at least one major local newspaper; (b) bids be entertained in the bidder's or other currencies in which expenses would normally be occurred on in an international currency specified by the borrower; (c) payments be made in the currencies in the bids, without requirement to accept any portion of payment in countertrade; (d) documents be in an international language (English, French, or Spanish); (e) bids be openly reviewed; and (f) contracts be awarded to the lowest evaluated responsive bid. ICB permits a margin of preference to be given to domestic goods and, under certain conditions, to domestic contracting services in developing countries. See: International Business Opportunities Service Limited International Bidding Local Competitive Bidding.


The above details describes about terms called in shipping such as International Agricultural Research Centers,International Atomic Energy Agency,International Atomic Energy List ,International Banking Act,International Banking Facility ,International Coffee Agreement,International Competitive Bidding etc. These phrases may help importers and exporters on their day to day business activities. The readers can also add more information about terms used in shipping business below this post.Terms used in shipping such as Interchange Points, Interchange , Interclub Agreement , INTERLINE PRICE,Interline Shipping

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