Terms used in shipping such as European Committee for Standardization,European Community,European Currency Unit,European Court of Justice


Terms used in shipping such as European Committee for Standardization,European Community,European Currency Unit,European Court of Justice etc.



This post explains about terms used in shipping such as European Commission, European Committee for Standardization,European Community,European Currency Unit,European Court of Justice,European Development Fund,European Economic Area,European Free Trade Association etc.These terms used in international business are arranged in alphabetical order and you may add more information about terms used in export business at the end of this article, if you wish.


Terms used in shipping


European Coal and Steel Community - The ECSC (French: Communaute Europeenne du Charbon et de l'Acier, CECA) undertakes activities to operate a common market in coal and steel; to remove barriers to trade in coal, coke, steel, pig-iron, and scrap iron


European Commission - One of the five major institutions of the European Community, the Commission is responsible for ensuring the implementation of the Treaty of Rome and Community rules and obligations; submission of proposals to the Council of Ministers; execution of the Council's decisions; reconciliation of disagreements among Council members; administration of EC policies, such as the Common Agricultural Policy and coal and steel policies; taking necessary legal action against firms or member governments; and representing the Community in trade negotiations with non-member countries.


European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization - The European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization, CENELEC, is a non-profit-making international organization under Belgian law. CENELEC seeks to harmonize electrotechnical standards published by the national organizations and to remove technical barriers to trade that may be caused by differences in standards. CENELEC members include: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom.


European Committee for Standardization - The European Committee for Standardization, or CEN (from Comite Europeen de Normalisation), is an association of the national standards organizations of 18 countries of the European Economic Communities (EEC) and of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA). CEN membership is open to the national standards organization of any European country which is, or is capable of becoming, a member of the EEC or EFTA. CEN develops voluntary standards in building, machine tools, information technology, and in all sectors excluding the electrical ones covered by CENELEC. CEN is involved in accreditation of laboratories and certification bodies as well as quality assurance.

Terms used in shipping such as European Committee for Standardization,European Community,European Currency

European Community - A regional organization created in 1958 providing for gradual elimination of intraregional customs duties and other trade barriers, applying a common external tariff against other countries, and providing for gradual adoption of other integrating measures, including a Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) and guarantees of free movement of labor and capital. The original 6 members were Belgium, France, West Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands. Denmark, Ireland, and the United Kingdom became members in 1973; Greece acceded in 1981; Spain and Portugal in 1986. The term European Community (EC) refers to three separate regional organizations which operate under separate treaties: - European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), established in 1952 - European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM), established in 1958, and - European Economic Community (EEC), established in 1958. Since 1967, the European Community have been served by four common institutions -- the EC Commission, the EC Council, the European Parliament, and the Court of Justice of the European Community. The present 12 member states of the EC are also members of the ECSC and Euratom. While the expression "European Community" (or "EC") was meant to refer to the three Communities, frequent use of the expression "European Community" (or "EC") has become common as a reference to the European Economic Community (EEC). Prior to November 1, 1993 (the date on which the Maastricht Treaty on European Union entered into force), the acronym "EC" was used as a reference to "European Community" and "European Communities. " Part I, Article I of the Maastricht Treaty on European Union formalized "EC" as a reference to "European Community. " The Treaty also introduced the term "European Union" as a broader legal entity than the European Community. See: European Coal and Steel Community European Union.


European Community (EC) - Coming into operation in 1958 and based on the Treaty of Rome, the EC originally consisted of the following countries who joined together to establish a customs union and other forms of economic integration: France, Italy, the Federal Republic of Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg. The United Kingdom, Denmark and Ireland joined in 1973. Greece joined in 1981, followed by Portugal and Spain in 1986.


European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations - See: Conference Europeenne des Administrations des Postes et des Telecommunications.


European Cooperation for the Long-term in Defense - EUCLID is a coordinated defense R&D initiative which was approved in a June 1989 meeting of the Independent European Program Group (IEPG). EUCLID was designed to overcome deficiencies in European defense R&D spending, minimize individual nation's duplicative efforts, improve planning, and overcome legal and administrative obstacles. EUCLID is divided into 11 technological categories: (a) modern radar technology, (b) microelectronics, (c) composite structures, (d) modular avionics, (e) electric gun, (f) artificial intelligence, (g) signature manipulation, (h) opto-electronic devices, (i) satellite surveillance technologies (including verification), (j) underwater acoustics, and (k) "human factors," including technology for training and simulation. Each of the 11 categories is assigned a lead coordinating nation.


European Court of Justice - The ECJ, located in Luxembourg, was established in 1958 to support interpretation and application of European Community law. The Court has jurisdiction to settle actions brought by: (a) the Commission against member states for failing to implement EC legislation, (b) the member states against EC institutions, referrals for interpreations from national courts where a question of EC law is at issue, and individuals under a provision of EC law.


European Currency Unit - The ecu is a "basket" of specified amounts of each E. C. currency. Amounts were determined according to the economic size of EC members, all of whose currencies participate in the ecu basket. In the European Monetary System (EMS), the ecu is used as a basis for setting central rates in the exchange rate mechanism, as an accounting unit, and as a reserve instrument and means of settlement among EMS central banks. The ecu is not used by persons. Under provisions of the Maastricht Treaty, the ecu is scheduled to be adopted as the single European currency in Stage III of European Monetary Union (by 1999 at the latest). The composition of the basket comprising the ecu was frozen on November 1, 1993 in accordance with a provision of the Maastricht Treaty which entered into force also on November 1. See: Maastricht Treaty.


European Development Fund - The EDF is the principal means by which the European Economic Community provides aid, concessionary finance, and technical assistance to developing countries. The Fund was originally established in 1958 to grant financial aid to dependencies of the six nations which founded the EEC.


European Economic Area - The EEA, which became effective in January 1994, consists of Austria, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden and the 12 member nations of the European Union. The EEA, encompassing an area inhabited by 370 million people, allows for the free movement of goods, persons, services and capital throughout all 17 countries. It also opens cooperation possibilities in many areas, including research and development, environment, promotion of tourism, social, and consumer policy. Following the negative result of the Swiss referendum in December 1992, the remaining six countries of the European Free Trade Association (Austria, Finland, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, and Sweden) signed an Adjusting Protocol in March 1993 with the intent to proceed without Switzerland. The Adjusting Protocol contains provisions which allow Switzerland to participate in the EEA at a later stage if it so wishes. Liechtenstein will remain a Contracting Party to the European Economic Area Agreement, but it will not be part of the EEA until the EEA Council decides that the accord's good functioning will not be impaired. Liechtenstein's status in the EEA accord was reviewed following Switzerland's negative vote on the EEA in a December 1992 referendum. In particular, Liechtenstein's customs union with Switzerland requires renegotiation. Significant differences exist between the EEA and full membership in the European Economic Community (EEC). The EEA is a free trade area, not a customs union. Border controls between the EEC and EFTA, while relaxed, are expected to continue. EFTA will not adopt the EEC's Common Customs Tariff nor participate in the Common Commercial Policy or Common Agricultural Policy. EFTA nations will continue to set their own tariffs for third countries subject to GATT and OECD agreements. Further change is anticipated with Austria, Finland, Norway, and Sweden expected to join the European Economic Community by January 1995 or shortly afterwards. See: European Economic Community European Free Trade Association European Union.


European Free Trade Association - EFTA is a regional organization established in December 1959 by the Stockholm Convention as an alternative to the Common Market. EFTA was designed to provide a free trade area for industrial products among member countries. In contrast with the EC, EFTA does not have a common external tariff and nor a common agricultural trade policy. Original EFTA members included the United Kingdom, Austria, Denmark, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, and Switzerland. The UK, Denmark, and Portugal left the Association when they joined the EC. EFTA currently has seven members: Austria, Finland, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, Sweden, and Switzerland -- Austria and Sweden have applied for EC membership. Association headquarters are in Geneva, Switzerland.


The above details describes about terms called in shipping such as European Commission, European Committee for Standardization,European Community,European Currency Unit,European Court of Justice,European Development Fund,European Economic Area,European Free Trade Association etc. These phrases may help importers and exporters on their day to day business activities. The readers can also add more information about terms used in shipping business below this post.Terms used in shipping such as Estimated time of arrival of carriers,Estimated Time of Departure,European Union,Eurodollars

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