Terms used in business such as Countersign, Courier, Cowboy, Credit Crunch,Credit history,Credit Analysis,Credit Rating Agency etc


Terms used in business such as Countersign, Courier, Cowboy, Credit Crunch,Credit history,Credit Analysis,Credit Rating Agency etc.


This post explains about terms used in business such as Countersign, Courier, Cowboy, Credit Crunch,Credit history,Credit Analysis,Credit Rating Agency,Credit Rating ,Credit Note etc.These terms used in international business are arranged in alphabetical order and you may add more information about terms used in export business at the end of this article, if you wish.


Terms used in business


Counterpart - A person or position which has a corresponding function in a different organization, country, etc. The corresponding function naturally is also a counterpart. Also a copy of a legal document.


Countersign - To add a second signature, where required, to a document or cheque, in order to make it valid.


Countertrade - The sale of goods or services that are paid for in whole or part by the transfer of goods or services from a foreign country.


Countervailing Duties - Duties levied on an imported good that has been unfairly subsidized by a foreign government. Imposing duties on the good is meant to raise the product's price to a "fair market value".


Terms used in  business such as Countersign, Courier, Cowboy, Credit Crunch,Credit history,Credit Analysis,Credit Rating Agency etcCountervailing Duty - An additional tax imposed on certain imported goods which have been produced very cheaply in their country of origin, in order to bring the price of the goods up to the true market price to protect the importing country's producers.


Country Risk - The political and financial risks of conducting business in a particular foreign country.


Courier - A person who carries and delivers messages, documents, packages, etc., often between companies. A person employed by a travel company as a tourist guide.


Courseware - Computer software designed to be used in teaching or for self-learning.


Courtage - A European term for brokerage fee.


Covenant - A written promise, sometimes part of a contract, to perform, or not to perform, a particular action.


Covenant:  A promise in an agreement or contract agreeing to performance or nonperformance of certain acts, or requiring or preventing certain acts or uses


Cover Charge - A fixed fee charged by a nightclub or a restaurant with live entertainment, which covers, or part covers, the cost of musicians, DJs, etc.


Cowboy - A dishonest, often unqualified, business person, especially one who overcharges for bad quality work. Not to be confused with the cowboy of top-shelf publications.


CPI - Cost-Per-Impression (cost per view) - an advertising method/term, commonly used in online advertising, by which advertising costs are based on the number of times an advert is displayed or viewed. See also PPC/CPC (Pay per Click/Cost per Click)


Crapola - Items of little importance or poor quality. Rubbish.


Crawling Peg - A system of frequently adjusting a country's exchange rate by marginal amounts, because of inflation, etc.


Creative Director - A person who usually works in the advertising or entertainment industry and is responsible for planning and managing the creative aspects of an advertising or promotional campaign.


Credit - a lending term used when a customer purchases a good or service with an agreement to pay at a later date (e.g. an account with a supplier, a store credit card or a bank credit card).


Credit - An arrangement in which an item for sale is received by the purchaser and paid for at a later date. A loan. The positive balance in a bank account. An amount entered in a company's accounts which has been paid by a debtor.


Credit Analysis - The process of analysing a company's financial records and assessing its ability to repay a loan, etc.


Credit Bureaus - An agency that collects and sells informational on individuals credit.


Credit Crunch - Also known as Credit Squeeze. This usually precedes a recession. A situation in which loans for businesses and individuals are difficult to obtain, when a government is trying to control inflation, because of the fear of bankruptcy and unemployment. The term 'Credit Crunch' also became a specific informal name for the 2008 global financial crisis and subsequent prolonged recession, which affected western economies particularly, mainly because of their highly leveraged and indebted nature, and the convoluted inter-dependent chains of credit arrangements between banks, some of which failed completely resulting in their effective nationalization or absorption into larger competitors.


Credit history - a report detailing an individual's or business' past credit arrangements. A credit history is often sought by a lender when assessing a loan application.


Credit Insurance / Assurance crédit :In general, an insurance policy concluded with a private insurance company which is used in place of bank guarantees. It is designed to cover manufacturing, credit, political and commercial risks borne by the seller. There are various types of policies: individual policies, policies covering all risks, subscription policies, personal policies.


Credit limit - a dollar amount that cannot be exceeded on a credit card or the maximum lending amount offered for a loan.


Credit limit (comprehensive policy) / Limite de crédit (police globale) :Determines the maximum amount that the OND accepts to cover by debtor.


Credit line: The maximum amount of credit or money a financial insti­tution or trade firm will extend to a customer.


Credit Note: It is a statement (note) issued by a seller giving credit to the buyer for any incorrect billing by the seller. Incorrect billing may take place when a customer has returned some goods or has been overcharged or an allowance is made for any other reasons such as short weight, damage in transit, etc,.


Credit rating - a ranking applied to a person or business based on their credit history that represents their ability to repay a debt


Credit Rating - Information (based on interpretation by an official credit rating agency or similar financial services data provider) of a person's or company's or other entity's financial history and circumstances, which assesses and indicates their ability to repay debts, loans, etc. Lenders use this information when making a decision regarding a loan approval, and in larger cases will adjust levels of interest and other financial credit terms according to the perceived risk of the loan situation and client, which may be an individual or a whole country or international federation.


Credit Rating Agency - this is fascinating and significant... a credit rating agency is a company which analyses and issues an official recognized assessment of the quality of a debt or debtor, including corporate, institutional or state debt or debt/credit products (specifically the reliability of repayment/recoverability), such as bonds and tradable securities (debts, equities, mortgages, and derivative complex financial credit contracts), and significantly also of organizations, bodies, and entire countries, by virtue of their credit-worthiness (ability to repay their debts). Ratings are visible, published and officially/internationally recognized, especially for countries. Ratings strongly influence interest rates applied to rated organizations, i.e., poor ratings mean that the low-rated organizations/bodies/nations are charged higher rates of interest by lenders, due to the higher perceived level of risk, and the overall market's response to the rating/risk. Conversely, positively-rated organizations/countries enjoy the lowest possible interest rates when borrowing. The same principle applies to debt products, mindful that many debt products are sold from one lender to another, commonly entailing seriously vast sums of money. Ratings are typically expressed on a scale of AAA ('triple A') as the top/best, which equates to the most reliable and secure debt/debtor, down through AA, A, BBB, BB, etc., to CCC with the lowest being C, although there are variations, including lower case letters, numbers, and + and - symbols. This is a highly significant, pivotal, and controversial area of corporate/global finance, economic management, extending to life and society, because:1.The sums of money involved/affected by these ratings are extremely big (multi-billions) so there is a lot at stake, for corporations, countries, bankers, brokers, and for societies too.2.While there are hundreds of small credit rating agencies, historically the market is dominated by just three of them, namely Standard and Poor; Moody's, and Fitch ('The Big Three'), which between them control (at 2013) c.95% of the global market (in ratings and related services, significantly at the highest levels of national and corporate debt/credit).3.The credit rating industry is inherently and worryingly liable to major conflict of interest because agencies provide important and high-value advisory services to the same organizations whose products the agencies assess, along with rating the client organizations themselves. There is also huge potential for conflict of interest and corruption on a vast scale because credit ratings affect interest rates and transactions entailing monumental sums of money, and so there is unlimited temptation and opportunity for incestuous deals between the rate-fixers and those who trade in credit and debt, and financial investments and speculation generally.4.Sadly, as with much else that happens in the financial sector across the globe, combinations of conflict of interest, extreme 'product' complexity, corporate and personal incentive and greed, together with a lack of sufficient regulation and transparency, tend to produce very big outcomes, trends and economical effects that can be arbitrary, distorted, extremely polarized, so that a few powerful people/organizations/entities achieve massive gains and advantages, while others, especially those in weak positions, suffer massive disadvantages. It is an interesting point of note that despite enormous reliance on credit ratings agencies at the level of global corporations and national governments, credit rating agencies can make large misjudgments, as when for example very positive ratings were given to highly toxic derivative mortgages/debts products whose collapse and virtual irrecoverable value led mainly or substantially to the 2008 global financial disintegration and following recesssion. As at 2103 at least one of the 'big three' credit agencies is subject to legal action by the US authorities in this connection. Along with banking and accountancy the credit ratings sector is likely to undergo major changes during the first quarter of the 21st century.


The above details describes about terms called in business such as Countersign, Courier, Cowboy, Credit Crunch,Credit history,Credit Analysis,Credit Rating Agency, Credit Rating ,Credit Note etc. These phrases may help importers and exporters on their day to day business activities. The readers can also add more information about terms used in business trade below this post.Terms used in business such as Corporate Governance, Corporate Raider,Corporate Social Responsibility ,Cost and Freight etc


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